There are different types of vegetarian diets: some may be suitable for children, other deficient in essential nutrients. If a vegetarian diet is done properly and includes fortified foods it can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases.
Restriction or exclusion of products of animal nature can lead to low intake of essential nutrients. Types of vegetarians are acquired, when growth is intense and when de- Classic vegetarians New vegetarians posits of essential nutrients are stored. Ovolactovegetarians Vegetarians consuming small According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, amounts of meat vegetarianism is defined by the consumption of a Lactovegetarians Vegetarians to a large extent Ovo-vegetarians Semi-vegetarians diet that contains vegetables, fruits, nuts, cereals Vegans1 Pesco-vegetarians2 and sometimes eggs and dairy products 1.
The products reasons for which one adheres to a vegetarian diet are different: economic suspensie antihelmintică umană in some countries, vegeta- ecological reasons: the effect of meat pro- bles are cheap; duction on the environment involves the in- the risk of omnivorous diets and the negative efficient use of the planet resources; publicity on the diseases emerged as a conse- religious reasons: seventh-day Adventists, quence of the consumption of animal prod- some Hindu, Buddhists; ucts; philosophical reasons: transcendental medi- moral reasons: the belief that eating meat in- tation, yogis, anthroposophists, macrobiot- volves cruelty and environmental degrada- ics; tion; animal-rights militants; social influences 1.
The study done in Poland in vegetarian of animal product diet children between years are vegetarians children in the animal product diet period emphasized low- and approximately 0.
Along with er leptine-polypeptid concentrations playing an im- the increase in the popularity of the vegetarian di- portant role in bone growth and weight adjustment ets, more and more parents encourage their chil- 4. The degree of adherence to the The risks of the vegetarian animal product diet are: vegetarian diets varies, therefore the nutrients in- emergence of rickets; take varies from one vegetarian to another.
The risk of deficiency in vitamin A and subse- American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of quently in keratomalacia; Canada considers that a carefully planned vegetar- the animal product diet product diet of anemia as well as the defi- ian diet can be healthy and suitable from the nutri- cit of proteins and zinc 1,2.
In some cases, the use of fortified growth according to the growth curves.
The recom- foods or supplements may be useful in covering the mendations regarding the caloric intake are similar recommendations for each nutrient. Caloric The benefits of the vegetarian diet are: sources accepted for babies and children are soy, low intake of saturated fats, cholesterol and vegetables, nuts, oil and nut butter and fruit juices.
Furthermore, împotriva cărui paraziți nu există niciun medicament recommendations etarians; for the same nutrient may vary in different coun- lower incidence of obesity, coronary disease, tries 5.
Plant proteins can cover the ener- lar diseases, shock, cancer 1,3. Com- It has also additional implications: plementary proteins must not be consumed in the moderate consumption of or abstinence from same meal.
Different studies 1.
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The 5 major plant protein sources are: vegeta- Another benefit has been reported in children bles, cereals, nuts and seeds, fruits and vegetal with an anthroposophical life style. This style in- products. Each of them have advantages and disad- volves the increased consumption of organic foods, vantages: including naturally fermented vegetal products and vegetables and cereals provide relatively products with live lactobacilli, as well as the re- large amounts of high quality proteins, but strictive use of antibiotics, antipyretics and vac- they must be cooked and processed to be- cines.
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The ovolacto- the animal proteins; vegetarians usually consume appropriate not ex- the lysine content is lower in all plants in cessive amounts of fibers 5. Occasionally, peo- acids must be ensured. The rec- soy, wheat germs, fortified cereals, yeast, enriched ommended ratio omega 6: omega 3 varies between grains 1,5. The linoleic acid is to be found in nuts, Folic acid: usually, the consumption of an in- seeds and grains.
The alpha-linoleic acid is found creased amount of fruit and vegetables ensures a in green leaves, phytoplankton, seaweeds, certain suitable intake of folic acid. People who consume seeds, nuts and vegetables as well as in flax, hazel- vegetal products boiled or roasted animal product diet high tempera- nuts, soy.
These may be transformed in non-saturat- tures and rarely eat cereals fortified with folic acids ed fatty acids arachidonic ARA, eicosapentae- or fruit juices may face deficiencies 1,5. ARA contains vitamin B Mushrooms are often con- is found in meat and eggs; EPA and DHA in fish sidered a source of animal product diet B12, but actually they and seafood. Ovolactovegetarians receive sufficient amounts The pregnant women that are vegan, vegetarian of vitamin B12 if they consume dairy products reg- or are on a macrobiotic diet and do not eat fish or ularly.
Table 2. What ingredients then could they have sourced that would have been cost effective, and locally obtained?
The typical vegetarian diets are rich in folic eat small amounts of fish and animal products do acid that may mask the deficit hematologic symp- not get these fatty acids. The risks are high for ba- toms, leading to a tardy diagnosis. The regular in- bies that can be premature, as their capacity of de- take of foods fortified with vitamin B12 or dairy saturating the alpha linolenic acid in DHA is animal product diet products must be encouraged in vegetarians and ed.
Vitamin D: children must consume daily foods Fiber intake such as cow milk, certain types of soy milk, rice Depending on age and gender, the recommend- milk, cereals enriched with vitamin D2 or D3. For very small children, the low energetic den- sity of diets rich in fibers can make difficult the suf- Animal product diet intake ficient caloric consumption and may inhibit the ab- Iron: is vital in all ages, especially in babies, sorption of certain minerals.
The cereal grind and adolescents and pregnant women. It is more frequent especially in vegan chil- vitamin D ensuring their normal growth. For the dren, as vegetal foods contain non-heme iron, in vegan babies that are not naturally fed, the soy milk comparison to the animal products, which contain is the only option, but just like rice and goat milk it heme iron.
Non-hem iron is more sensitive to fac- does not contain an optimum ratio between nutri- tors inhibiting animal product diet absorption such as phytates, cal- ents salate de detoxifiere can lead to unbalances.
The guides for the cium, plant tea, cocoa, certain spices and fibers. Babies older than 6 months vegetal products that increase iron animal product diet. In run a potential risk of deficiencies due to the re- vegetarians, the recommended intake is 1.
By the age of 6 months the iron reserves of iron deposits of vegetarians, despite the fact that the organism are animal product diet and the diet must in- serum ferritin is usually within normal limits 4,5. Foods such as products rich in vitamin C citrus fruit, green leaf red meat contain high animal product diet and protein amounts products 1,5.
Human milk does not contain sufficient zinc for babies over 6 months Recommendations for children old. The bioavailability of plants relatively rich in zinc, such as whole-cereals, soy, grains, nuts, peas, This period is important for the development of lentil, tends to be low as many of them contain phy- nutrition habits that can be the basis of a healthy tates and fibers that inhibit the zinc absorption. In diet during adulthood. Vegetarian children, except ovolactovegetarians, the zinc absorption is approx- those who receive extremely restrictive diets non- imately one third lower than in omnivorous.
Sources same age. Vegan children may need large quantities of plants rich in zinc are whole-cereal bread made of proteins due to the differences in the digestibility with yeast and zinc fortified cereals 4,5. They Calcium: is important for bone health; approx- also need a suitable intake of calcium, zinc, iron. Foods such as nuts, grapes, honey or corn lowing decade. In vegans, the calcium intake tends syrup must not be fed before the age of three, espe- to be low in comparison to the lactovegetarians and cially to children with family history of allergy, ec- non-vegetarians.
Although the plant oxalates, phy- zema or asthma 1,5. Calcium Recommendations for adolescents in contained by broccoli, cabbage, turnips, and kale leaves 4,5.
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Even if they have recently become vegans or they are vegans from their early childhood, nutri- Iodine: if iodised salt is consumed, the iodine tional unbalance has major consequences in adult- deficit is rare. Vegans whose diets are restrained to hood.
The vegetarian practices at this age can be a non-iodised sea salts and contain substantial intake marker in la locurile de papilom și identification of adolescents tending of goitrogenic foods such as broccoli, mustard, to have eating disorders or weight obsession. It has cabbage, kales, have iodine deficit risk.
Vegetarian mothers and natural nutrition Recommendations for babies If the diet is correct, human milk may be suffi- Until the age of months, the vegetarian and cient for the baby up to 6 months. The diet must non-vegetarian babies diets are identical, the hu- contain: man milk being the best food for this period, due to proteins from nuts, eggs, dried grains, lentil its well-known advantages.
The more restrictive the diet and the younger Breastfeeding vegan mothers need vitamin and the child animal product diet, the higher the deficiency risk. If these mothers diet contains 2. Vegetarians must be assessed individually by small amounts of vitamin B12, then their milk will frequent nutrition questionnaires regarding the di- contain insufficient amounts of vitamin B They etetic intake.
Vegetarian diets may cover the children and consume vitamin B12 sources fortified cereals, soy, adolescents nutritional needs if carefully planned oat extract. The vitamin D content of human milk and monitored. Even if the vegetarian diet observes the current exposure. The docosahexaenoic acid is necessary for recommendations for all nutrients, the use of sup- the development of the eyes and brain, and vegetar- plements and fortified foods is necessary to prevent ians source is the alpha-linolenic acid contained by deficiencies.
Kleinman R. Nutritional Aspects of Vegetarian Diets. Pediatric 6. Mangels Animal product diet. The Vegan Diet for Infants and Children. Nutrition Handbook 6TH Ed. Kirby M. Nutritional Deficiencies in Children on Restricted 7. Chechowska M. Lipids and Diets. Pediatr Clin North Am.
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